There have been numerous interpretations of Plato’s political thought throughout the history of philosophy up to the 20th century, a century in which the idea was imposed that the Athenian philosopher was the progenitor of modern totalitarianism. Karl Popper with his work The Open Society and Its Enemies, was the author of this exegetical trend, influenced by the fear of the Soviet Union’s expansion on one side and by the rise of Hitler on the other. Starting from the analysis of the Popperian accusation, the text proposes a series of historical-philosophical comparisons aimed at understanding why there was talk of a Plato close to “communist” positions and a Plato who supported “Nazi” positions. The text presents that Plato disputed between the revolutionary and reactionary ideologies that characterised the 20th century. This publication is an extract from the essay Platone totalitario (Historica, 2017, pp. 73-143).
Keywords: Social Pedagogy, Gender Equality, Bolshevism, Totalitarianism, Racism.
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